Chair of Bioinformatics

    Smart City

     

    Was ist Smartcity? Die smarte Stadt der Zukunft

    Um den Verkehr oder das Müllmanagement zu optimieren, benötigt jede Stadtverwaltung Informationen. Smartphones und andere Kommunikationsmittel bieten dabei in vielen Fällen Vorteile gegenüber Sensoren – und soziale Netzwerke fördern sogar die Kreativität der Bürger.

    Reference: 1. Die smarte Stadt der Zukunft. Spektrum (2012), 4:S63.

    Am 6. Januar 2011 wurde der tunesische Blogger Slim Amamou als Regimekritiker verhaftet. Doch über das soziale Netzwerk "Foursquare" informierte er Freunde und Journalisten. Foursquare basiert auf einer Applikation, kurz: App, für Mobiltelefone. Weil es den im Gerät eingebauten GPS-Sensor nutzt, um dem Netzwerk beim Log-in automatisch den Standort zu melden, konnte Amamou im Gefängnis von Tunis geortet werden. Die Festnahme fand weltweit ihren Nachhall in der Presse – und entfachte weitere Aufstände. So trug die Generation Internet dazu bei, dass Präsident Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali acht Tage später nach Saudi-Arabien floh.

    Keine zwei Wochen darauf entbrannten auch auf Kairos Straßen die Proteste gegen das dort herrschende Regime. Wieder kam den modernen Kommunikationsmedien eine wichtige Rolle zu. Zwar ließ die Regierung alsbald sowohl den Internetservice als auch das Mobilfunknetz des Landes außer Betrieb nehmen. Doch via Facebook, Twitter und Chatrooms hatten sich bereits Millionen Menschen miteinander solidarisiert. Weil die Wirtschaft des Landes Schaden zu nehmen drohte, wurden die Medien wieder frei gegeben. Die Massenproteste hielten an, Präsident Hosni Mubarak dankte am 11. Februar ab.

    Soziale Netzwerke, Internet und Handys schaffen offenbar bereits heute Rahmenbedingungen, unter denen urbane Gesellschaften ihre Lebenswelten verändern. Viele Stadtplaner beschränken sich jedoch in ihren Konzepten von "Smart Citys" – mit informationsverarbeitenden Technologien ausgestatteten Städten – auf die Optimierung einzelner Prozesse. Als Flaggschiff solcher Projekte kann Masdar in den Vereinigten Arabischen Emiraten gelten, eine für 50 000 Bewohner aus der Wüste gestampfte Stadt. Dort ist jedes Gebäude und Fahrzeug, ja sogar jede Straßenlaterne mit Hightechzubehör ausgestattet, um den Energieverbrauch auf ein Minimum zu reduzieren. Das Gleiche gilt für New Songdo City in Südkorea und PlanIT Valley in Portugal.

    Metropolen der Zukunft

    http://www.metropolen-der-zukunft.de/39994.html
    Die Top 10 im Jahr 2014:

    1. Tokyo-Kawasaki-Yokohama (Japan)

    33.000.000

    2. Mumbai -Thane-Kalyan (Indien)

    27.700.000

    3. Delhi-Gurgaon-Ghaziabad (Indien)

    27.100.000

    4. Jakarta - Tangerang - Bekasi (Indonesien)

    23.600.000

    5. Soul-Inch'on-Suwon (Südkorea)

    23.400.000

    6. Mexiko City-Ecatepec-Nezahuacoyotl (Mexiko)

    22.800.000

    7. Karachi (Pakistan)

    22.800.000

    8. Sao Paulo-Guarulhos-Sto.Andre (Brasilien)

    22.500.000

    9. Shanghai (China)

    21.400.000

    10. Kairo-Al Giza (Ägypten)

    20.200.000

    Die Top 10 im Jahre 2025:

    1. Pearl River City (China)

    73.000.000

    2. MumbaiThaneKalyan (Indien)

    43.000.000

    3. DelhiGurgaonGhaziabad (Indien) 

    42.500.000

    4. TokyoYokohama (Japan)

    35.000.000

    5. Jakarta Bogor (Indonesien)

    32.800.000

    6. Karachi (Pakistan)

    31.400.000

    7. Shanghai (China)  

    30.000.000

    8. Lagos (Nigeria)

    28.800.000

    9. KolkataHaoraBhatpara (Indien) 

    28.000.000

    10.KairoAl Giza (Ägypten)

    27.000.000

    Die Top 10 im Jahre 2050:

    1. DelhiMeerutSonipat (Indien)

    88.000.000

    2. Pearl River City (China)

    86.000.000

    3. MumbaiKalyan (Indien)

    85.000.000

    4. ShanghaiSuzhouWuxi (China)

    70.000.000

    5. BeijingLangfangTianjin (China)

    65.000.000

    6. Dhaka (Bangladesch)

    60.000.000

    7. Lagos (Nigeria)

    58.000.000

    8. Karachi (Pakistan)

    55.000.000

    9. Kolkata (Indien)

    55.000.000

    10. JakartaBogor (Indonesien) 

    52.000.000

    Praktische Beispiele für eine smarte Stadt

    Smart Meter ("e-energy")

    Der Energieverbrauch von privaten Haushalten lässt sich mit Hilfe intelligenter Energiesysteme – sogenannter Smart Grids – und entsprechender Anreizmechanismen reduzieren. http://www.e-energy.de/de/Kongress2013.php

    „UR:BAN“ ist die Optimierung der Verkehrseffizienz in urbanen Räumen bei gleichzeitiger Senkung des Emissionsausstoßes. Dieses Ziel soll durch den Ausbau von intelligenter Infrastruktur und deren Vernetzung mit intelligenten Fahrzeugen unter spezieller Berücksichtigung neuer Antriebskonzepte erreicht werden.

    Würzburg auf dem Weg zu einer intelligenten Stadt der Zukunft

    Dokument

    Smart City München

    Dokument

    Smart City Rotterdam - Herausforderungen einer etablierten Großstadt

    Dokument

    Katalysator

    "Gerade auf dem Gebiet der Energieversorgung gibt es neue, smarte Konzepte, die mit neuen biochemischen Methoden und Katalysatoren viel Energie sparen aber auch neue Brennstoffzyklen, etwa mit Wasserstoff und Methanol, eröffnen:

    http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/technik/rostocker-gewinnen-wasserstoff-mit-neuer-technik-a-885891.html

     

    Smart City

    SMART city movement for Würzburg

    Concept: SMART city – a side interest of Dandekar Group  (group details) with the Bioinformatic  idea to do  something good for the environment and city development; we are actively collecting ideas and pointers but of course only time will tell how much we can really achieve here. (Deutsche Zusammenfassung – http://www.spektrum.de/alias/stadtplanung/die-smarte-stadt-der-zukunft/1142721)

    Why? Our resources are consumed in such a way that even the whole world is not enough: In fact, we are consuming about 1.4 earth worth, that is how big the foot-print of mankind on the planet is (footprint calculator). Two alternative footprint calculators are accessible below. The first one is from BUND and fun to use, the second one has a more detailed questionaire and involves registration.

    There are two articles recently appeared concerning this concept of Smartcity, one positive review “securing natural capital and expanding equity to rescale civilization” (Nature 486: 68-73, 07 June 2012) and one negative discussion “Approaching a state shift in Earth’s biosphere” (Nature 486: 52-58, 07 June 2012).

    Measures: Currently all reasonable measures fail (Kyoto/Durban meetings):

    Best would be to simply use less, less economic growth, less consumptions; furthermore reasonable measures against global warming (e.g. drive less or at least a smaller car, no cruises, use resources prudently etc.)

    This is partly an in-build mistake in our economy and our society (in particular the believe in eternal growth to solve all economic and social quarrels), but also the typical tragedy-of-the-commons (for individuals or individual states it is advantageous to get a bigger piece of the cake even if this means that soon there will be no cake at all for all further years (“tragedy of the commons”).

    A good example is overfishing and the difficult EU negotiations against this (http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/index_en.htm).

    It may be possible that under drastic circumstances (“beyond the limits”, the sequel of the Club of Rome book) suddenly makind changes and becomes reasonable. “The great disruption” (Paul Gilding), becomes less materialistic, more interested in their genuine well-being, education and arts, social interactions, works less and is environmental friendly, but it is equally possible that nothing happens, prudent actions come too late and too slow.

    Consequences of such a late action can be world economic crisis, growing unrest, failing states resulting war and failing states as well as global military escalation. Together with the stock-pile of nuclear weapons, the trespassing of several ecological tipping points this may lead to catastrophic consequences.

    However, biology does not only teach and know how natural equilibrium in different ecosystems looks like, it can make also a number of recommendations how we can reshape technology, consumption and way of living so that both a growth in quality of life is further possible as well as the environment is better protected.

    Here the key is resilience, adaptation and flexibility, self-organization and repair.

    In this project we want to couple this perspective, quite strong in Würzburg both in biology as well as in the medical sciences, with the SMART city concept  to get a Würzburg-specific route to a SMART city.

    The SMART city movement comes originally from MIT and computer science and features first the idea to have the same freedom of programming as in software also for the hardware, for instance the idea of very flexible printers to construct at home small and flexible tools and things (in practice however often from plastic). However, various further developments of flexible printers are possible including printing of different cell types of artificial tissues (http://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Die-Amateure-uebernehmen-den-Produktionsprozess-1361100.html).

    Concrete measures include a Würzburg-specific mix of actions and technology developments with the aim to protect our environment and city including resources to have a resilient, self-organized and self-supported modern, sustainable city with intelligent (SMART) use of resources, traffic, heating but also with cutting edge, modern, self-repairing and flexible technologies.

    Investigation: Is Würzburg in a way for a future smart city?

    A Nov 2012 report for the world bank from MPI Potsdam for climate research details why SMART solutions against climate change are dearly wanted:


    Highly versatile flexible Production

    Original the MIT Fablabs started the smart city movement:(http://fab.cba.mit.edu).This site supports a digital fabrication facility and global network of field fab labs managed by MIT's Center for Bits and Atoms (http://www.fabfoundation.org/fab-labs/what-is-a-fab-lab). Fab Lab is the educational outreach component of MIT’s Center for Bits and Atoms (CBA), an extension of its research into digital fabrication and computation. A Fab Lab is a technical prototyping platform for innovation and invention, providing stimulus for local entrepreneurship. A Fab Lab is also a platform for learning and innovation: a place to play, to create, to learn, to mentor, to invent. To be a Fab Lab means connecting to a global community of learners, educators, technologists, researchers, makers and innovators- -a knowledge sharing network that spans 30 countries and 24 time zones. Because all Fab Labs share common tools and processes, the program is building a global network, a distributed laboratory for research and invention.  A Fab Lab is comprised of off-the-shelf, industrial-grade fabrication and electronics tools, wrapped in open source software and programs written by researchers at MIT’s Center for Bits & Atoms.

    However, there are of course also more biological movements towards this aim:

    1. GO-Synthetic (Unsere Design-Datenbank) database 

    An essential topic for synthetic biologists is to understand the structure and function of biological processes and involved proteins and plan experiments accordingly. Remarkable progress has been made in recent years towards this goal. However, efforts to collect and present all information on processes and functions are still cumbersome. The database tool GoSynthetic provides a new, simple and fast way to analyse biological processes applying a hierarchical database. Four different search modes are implemented. Furthermore, protein interaction data, cross-links to organism-specific databases (17 organisms including six model organisms and their interactions), COG/KOG, GO and IntAct are warehoused. The built in connection to technical and engineering terms enables a simple switching between biological concepts and concepts from engineering, electronics and synthetic biology. The current version of GoSynthetic covers more than one million processes, proteins, COGs and GOs. It is illustrated by various application examples probing process differences and designing modifications. Database URL: gosyn.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de.

    2. MIT-Bioparts list (Nutzbare Bio-Circuits)

    BioBrick parts are DNA sequences which conform to a restriction-enzyme assembly standard. These Lego-like building blocks are used to design and assemble synthetic biological circuits, which would then be incorporated into living cells such as Escherichia coli cells to construct new biological systems. Examples of BioBrick parts include promoters, ribosomal binding sites (RBS), coding sequences and terminators. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BioBrick)

    The BioBricks Foundation (BBF) is a 501(c)(3) public-benefit organization founded in 2006 by scientists and engineers who recognized that synthetic biology had the potential to produce big impacts on people and the planet and who wanted to ensure that this emerging field would serve the public interest. Our mission is to ensure that the engineering of biology is conducted in an open and ethical manner to benefit all people and the planet. We envision a world in which scientists and engineers work together using freely available standardized biological parts that are safe, ethical, cost effective and publicly accessible to create solutions to the problems facing humanity. We envision synthetic biology as a force for good in the world. We see a future in which architecture, medicine, environmental remediation, agriculture, and other fields use synthetic biology. Young scientists are the key to this field's future successes. We believe biosecurity, biosafety, bioethics, environmental health, and sustainability must be integrated with scientific research and applied technology. We bring together engineers, scientists, attorneys, innovators, teachers, students, policymakers, and ordinary citizens to make this vision a reality (http://biobricks.org/about-foundation).

    3. Thingiverse

    Three D printers are very flexible, the thingiverse gives an overview what these machines can all print and create (http://www.thingiverse.com)

    Crowdfunding Portals to finance flexibility for new production methods are

    • Kickstarter,
    • IndieGogo and
    • KissKissBankBank.

    Besides these effords towards flexible fabrication there are other points to consider for the smart city:

    Networks
    networks are also important to conquer the future of the smart city.
    Besides flexible production networks these include:

    Plan B, Earth Policy Institute (ecology, help against poverty, protect resources)
    http://www.earth-policy.org/action_center/C30

    Paul Gilding
    http://paulgilding.com/
    Publisher and network about Global Warming and changes in cities and societies


    Projects

    SMART city - Project management (this group collects information on SMART city projects, improves WEB-awareness and the WEB site; establishes new collaboration and collects grants)

    Other SMART cities:

    Resilience links

    Links: Limits of growth

    SMART city - City organization

    • Energy audit
    • Water
    • Traffic

    SMART technologies

    • MIT printer (flexibility; construct products as flexible as software)
    • SMART Handy
    • SMART molecular biology (vaccinia virus; light-gated proteins)

    SMART resource management and ecology

    • Ecosystem management

      Prof. Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter


      Tele:      +49 (0)931 31-86947
      Fax:       +49 (0)931 31-84352
      E.Mail:    ingolf.steffan@uni-wuerzburg.de

    • Resources management
      rare earth for electromotors, contact: Dr. Otto, chairman of the board, Hochschulratsvorsitzender, Firma Brose; other limited resources)

    • Smart molecular biotechnology and systems biology

      Prof. Thomas Dandekar

      Am Hubland/Biozentrum
      D-97074 Würzburg
      Tel.:    +49 (0)931 31 84550
      Fax:    +49 (0)931 31 84552
      E.mail: dandekar@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    SMART disaster protection and ecology

    • resilience
    • disaster relief
    • local production and protection

    Education

    There are in fact already study programs to study how to develop cities
    better and more sustainable, e.g.

    1. http://www.jointdegree.eu/sd/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=20%3Asdmainpage&catid=21%3Acatmainpage&Itemid=15
    2. http://www.jemes.eu/pdf/JEMES_CiSu_Programme_presentation_final.pdf

    "Smart cities" - Deutsche Hochtechnologie für die Stadt der Zukunft

    1. German version - Download
    2. English version -  Download

    Virtual academic sustainability "Virtuelle Akademie Nachhaltigkeit":

    This is a teaching program on sustainability http://www.va-bne.de/
    Furthermore, there is an UNESCO-Report in German on sustainability of universities including a self-test: http://www.wiwi.uni-bremen.de/gmc/aktuell_pdf/UNESCO_Broschuere_Hochschulen.pdf

    Proceedings

    Barcelona plan (download) for smart city (according to Helsinki 2012 workshop)

    Some current results

    Our working group collects also results from within the university of Würzburg which improve the SMART city concept as well as results from outside which are of general interest.


    Also the WWF  supports the SMART city movement, however his activities focus more on wilderness and nature resources not so much protection of city environments. However, a common interest is in environmental-friendly and resource-protecting mobility, if interested contact  viviane.raddatz@wwf.de


    University results (these stem from different activities at the university of Würzburg as indicated; we collect them here as they show how activities converge towards the SMART city topic): "Mobilitätsanalyse" (in German; report from Nov. 2011 by Prof. Dr. Jürgen Rauh and his students on mobility behaviour at the Würzburg university).

    "Ergebnisse Energy Audit"   (in German; report from 2010 on concrete energy saving measures at the university, financing by the ministry is still to be negotiated, smaller measures are already implemented; furthermore environmental-friendliness "Nachhaltigkeit" is now part of the "Leitbild" of our University).


    Practical examples for smart technologies to achieve smart cities:
    Smart energy meters can help to save energies, here are presentations and videos on this topic: http://www.e-energy.de/de/Kongress2013.php

    Smart transportation, intelligent guidance of traffice including feedback from individual cars including smart phone applications is shown here:
    Institut für Verkehrstechnik Kassel bzw. Projektseite:

    Outside results: An analysis on global emission free energy production (world-wide, till 2030) which would include local strengthening of energy production (wind, solar energy, geothermal energy).

    Global Challenges

    This page is under constrution/Dies Seite befindet sich gerade im Aufbau...

    In collaboration with Prof. Dr. Phuoc Tran-Gia (Vice president for internationalisation, information Technology, alumni and public relations)

     

    Motivation: Change the world - if you are not ready for change, you will be rolled over:)

     

    1. Change for Real: The risky & chaotic Megatrends for mankind:

    • Global warming & biodiversity
    • Population growth & food security (overpopulation: Africa >4bio. people by 2100)
    • Nuclear weapons - Prevention of major war (USA: 1$ Trillion over 30 yrs. for nuclear weapon)
    • Dwindeling resources
    • Internet and freedom
    • Stephen Hawking warns artificial intelligence could end mankind but also itself could do the job: BBC Interview future of mankind:

    news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_9672000/9672233.stm

    www.bbc.com/news/technology-30290540

     

    2. What can we do?

    ⇒ Principle efforts:

    • Spread the word: letters to the editor, op-eds, internet
    • Get politically involved: let elected officials know what’s important
    • Take action in an area that excites you, such as closing coal-fired power plants, tax restructuring, or ending biofuel mandates that raise food prices
    • Incentive for usage
    • Educate yourself on environmental issues

     

    ⇒ Act now, act rational, plan & fare well! Well fare plan of UNESCO

    But: NOT wild technologie: „Autonomous waapons”, „Nuclear bombs”, „Wild bugs”, „uncontrolled Artificial intelligence”

    Technologies should be:

    - Transparent

    - each step and implementation planned and always controlled

    - not „alive”, „wild”, but convenient, controlled and comfortable

     

     ⇒ Principle information:

    • Global Challenges Foundation - The Global Challenges Foundation wants to facilitate decisions for efficient actions against the greatest global risks facing humanity, that we are unable to manage ...

     

     ⇒ Solutions: Three different plans

    Plan/effortsGlobal activitiesWürzburg efforts

     

    Plan A

    Bad project:  No change, business as usual ⇒ leads slowly to ultimate disaster, we have to act

     

     

    Plan B

    Rational: Try to influence bad Mega Trends by direct action (Decisive action for sustainment) ⇒ Evolve, adapt, transform into a sustainable, intelligent, free and creative community (in particular strong regarding sustainability)

      

     

    Plan C

    Improve living while protecting against desaster ⇒ super resilient technologies are needed to save population, rebuild after disaster, help the failing state, cope with elevated global temperatures or diminish them, smart measures to improve climate: dual use (local benefit)

     

    Figure Marine cloud: Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming

    Figure Green house: Victoria amazonica (giant Amazon waterlilies) in a large greenhouse at the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden, Russia. Botanical Garden V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute.jpg Public Domain

     

    Figure: Nuclear Explosion Bikini US Dept Energy public domain

    Technology well known - Improve harvest in cold and aride areas (direct benefit for Dual use)

    They protect against UV irradiation and sustained winter (e.g. in Ice Land)

    ⇒ maybe produced from nanocellulose (environmental freindly)

       

    • emerging technologies

    → Prof. Dandekar: light-gated information storage & proteins-programmable bacterial  membranes  pore proteins: resistors, condensators → An integrated nanocellulose chip for information storage and processing (more information see references bottom) → This technology was finalist in emerging technologies competition Royal Soc. London (2015)

    • Digital Agenda: Internet as super-resilient technology → However, preserve Freedom of communication, Prevent citizen score, control of society by nudging
    → Indights into social media and Internet by Prof. Tran-Gia

     

    • Bridging Efforts - the Würzburg way to strengthen connection between science and policy: Prof. Jörg Hacker (President of the "Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina – Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften", Honorary Member of the Faculty of Biology, University of Würzburg and German representative of the UN Secretary-General’s Scientific Advisory Board)

     

     

     


    ODER

     

     

    • „Plan A” = Bad project:  No change, business as usual ⇒ leads slowly to ultimate disaster, we have to act
    Global activitiesWürzburg efforts
     
    •   „Plan B” = Rational: Try to influence bad Mega Trends by direct action (Decisive action for sustainment) ⇒ Evolve, adapt, transform into a sustainable, intelligent, free and creative community (in particular strong regarding sustainability)
    Global activitiesWürzburg efforts

     

      
    • „Plan C” = Improve living while protecting against desaster ⇒ super resilient technologies are needed to save population, rebuild after disaster, help the failing state, cope with elevated global temperatures or diminish them, smart measures to improve climate: dual use (local benefit)
    Global activitiesWürzburg efforts

     

     

    Figure Marine cloud: Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming

    Figure Green house: Victoria amazonica (giant Amazon waterlilies) in a large greenhouse at the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden, Russia. Botanical Garden V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute.jpg Public Domain

     

    Figure: Nuclear Explosion Bikini US Dept Energy public domain

    Technology well known - Improve harvest in cold and aride areas (direct benefit for Dual use)

    They protect against UV irradiation and sustained winter (e.g. in Ice Land)

    ⇒ maybe produced from nanocellulose (environmental freindly)

       

    • emerging technologies

    → Prof. Dandekar: light-gated information storage & proteins-programmable bacterial  membranes  pore proteins: resistors, condensators → An integrated nanocellulose chip for information storage and processing (more information see references bottom) → This technology was finalist in emerging technologies competition Royal Soc. London (2015)

    • Digital Agenda: Internet as super-resilient technology → However, preserve Freedom of communication, Prevent citizen score, control of society by nudging
    → Indights into social media and Internet by Prof. Tran-Gia

     

    • Bridging Efforts - the Würzburg way to strengthen connection between science and policy: Prof. Jörg Hacker (President of the "Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina – Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften", Honorary Member of the Faculty of Biology, University of Würzburg and German representative of the UN Secretary-General’s Scientific Advisory Board)

     

     

     


    (OLD without TABLE)

     

    4. Würzburg efforts for global challenges (divided into B and C strategies):

    - „Plan B”: Transformation of society and industy into a sustainable economy,
    preservation of ecosystems and resources

    • Mobility analysis and energy audit (Prof. Dandekar: FET open award)
    • electrifying cars: Brose company


    - „Plan C”:

    • Super-resilient technologies to cope with system break down, e.g. emerging technologies in Molecular biology, Chemistry, Nanotechnology, Computing:

          Global

    1. Prof. Dandekar: light-gated information storage & proteins-programmable bacterial  membranes  pore proteins: resistors, condensators → An integrated nanocellulose chip for information storage and processing (more information see references bottom) → This technology was finalist in emerging technologies competition Royal Soc. London (2015)
    • Digital Agenda: Internet as super-resilient technology → However, preserve Freedom of communication, Prevent citizen score, control of society by nudging:
    1.  Insights into social media and Internet by Prof. Tran-Gia
    • Bridging Efforts - the Würzburg way to strengthen connection between science and policy: Prof. Jörg Hacker (President of the "Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina – Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften", Honorary Member of the Faculty of Biology, University of Würzburg and German representative of the UN Secretary-General’s Scientific Advisory Board)

     

    5. Global efforts (including global networks):

     ⇒ „Plan A”

    ⇒ „Plan B”

    • Lester Brown: Providing a Plan to Save Civilication:

    The Great Transition: Shifting from Fossil Fuels to Solar and Wind Energy

    Plan B 3.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization

    • global plastic cleaning project

    ⇒ „Plan C”

    Figure Marine cloud: Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming

    • green line „Sansibar”

    Figure Green house: Victoria amazonica (giant Amazon waterlilies) in a large greenhouse at the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden, Russia. Botanical Garden V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute.jpg Public Domain

     

    Figure: Nuclear Explosion Bikini US Dept Energy public domain

    Technology well known - Improve harvest in cold and aride areas (direct benefit for Dual use)

    They protect against UV irradiation and sustained winter (e.g. in Ice Land)

    ⇒ maybe produced from nanocellulose (environmental friendly)

     

     

    Contact

    Lehrstuhl für Bioinformatik
    Am Hubland
    97074 Würzburg

    Tel. +49 931 31-84550
    Fax: +49 931 31-84552

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    Hubland Süd Hubland Nord Campus Dallenberg Fabrikschleichach Humangenetik Campus Medizin